A solar photovoltaic (PV) system generates electricity from sunlight using solar panels. These solar panels are made up of multiple solar cells, which are made from semiconductor materials, such as silicon.
When sunlight hits the solar panel, the solar cells absorb the energy from the photons in the sunlight, which knocks electrons in the cells loose. This creates a flow of electricity, which can be captured by the solar panel and sent to an inverter.
The inverter then converts the direct current (DC) electricity produced by the solar panels into alternating current (AC) electricity, which is the type of electricity used in homes and buildings. The AC electricity is then sent to the electrical panel, where it can be distributed throughout the building to power appliances and other electrical devices.
If the solar panels generate more electricity than the building uses at any given time, the excess electricity can be sent back to the grid through a process called net metering. In this case, the building owner can receive credits on their electricity bill for the excess electricity they generate, which can be used to offset the cost of electricity they use from the grid when their solar panels are not producing enough electricity to meet their needs.
Overall, solar PV systems are a clean and renewable source of energy that can help reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and lower our carbon footprint.